Object Record

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Catalog Number PH-LC 53
Object Name Ericameria nauseosa
Title Ericameria nauseosa
Other Name Rubber Rabbitbrush
Collector Meriwether Lewis & William Clark
Date 1804
Description Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G. L. Nesom & Baird var. graveolens (Nutt.) Reveal & Schuyler, comb. et stat. nov., based on Chrysocoma graveolens Nutt. (Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 136. 1818) and the autonym Bigelovia graveolens (Nutt.) A. Gray var. glabrata A. Gray (in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 645. 1873). [footnote 3] - PH-LC 51 (Moulton 39a), PH-LC 52 (Moulton 39b), PH-LC 53 (Moulton 39c), PH-LC 54 (Moulton 39d) and PH-LC 56 (Moulton 40b), left-hand specimen.

[footnote 3:] Additional nomenclatural synonyms are Chrysothamnus graveolens (Nutt.) Greene (in Erythea 3: 108. 1895), C. nauseosus (Pall. ex Pursh) Britton var. graveolens (Nutt.) H. M. Hall (in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 7: 174. 1919), C. nauseosus subsp. graveolens (Nutt.) Piper (in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 11: 559. 1906), C. nauseosus var. graveolens (A. Gray) Cronquist (in Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 17(5): 128. 1955), and Ericameria nauseosa subsp. graveolens (Nutt.) L. C. Anderson (in Great Basin Naturalist 55: 85. 1995). Nesom & Baird incorrected proposed E. nauseosa var. glabrata (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom & Baird (in Phytologia 75: 86. 1993) for the above taxon. They corrected one of their nomenclatural errors subsequently (in Phytologia 78: 61-65. 1995), but they failed to correct the above name as now required by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al., 1994).

Pursh (1813: 517) reports this series of specimens as Chrysocoma dracunculoides Lam. (Encycl. 2: 198. 1786), listing the plants as found on the "high cliffs on the banks of the Missouri" in October. There are several Lewis and Clark specimens associated with this name. Lewis 32 was collected on "21st. of Sept. 1805. at the upper part of the bigg bend of the Missouri" (PH-LC 51), or in modern parlance at the upper part of the Big Bend of the Missouri in Hughes Co., South Dakota (Moulton, 1987a: 469). [footnote 4] A second collection from this location (PH-LC 52) is annotated "Baccharis linearis" by Pursh, an unpublished name. This may well be the basis for Pursh's report of Baccharis angustifolia (see B. salicina Torr. & A. Gray, No. 32 above). Lewis 54 (PH-LC 53) was gathered on 2 Oct 1804 above the mouth of the Cheyenne River in Dewey or Sully Co., South Dakota (Moulton 1987a: 470). A duplicate of this collection, originally in the Lambert Herbarium (PH-LC 54), is annotated by Pursh with an unpublished name "Chrysocoma elongata." This sheet corresponds with the cited location and date given by Pursh further suggesting that Lewis 32 might possibly be the basis for the report of B. angustifolia.

[footnote 4:] This sheet was reported by Moulton (1987a) as Gutierrezia sarothrae but is being corrected to Chrysothamnus nauseosus subsp. graveolens in the forthcoming volume (Moulton, in press) on the botany of the expedition.

A third sample of var. graveolens is associated with a mixed collection supposedly gathered "15th- October 1805. / on the Columbia river." As Lloyd Shinners wrote on the sheet (PH-LC 56) in 1946, neither the fragment of var. nauseosa nor that of var. graveolens could have come from the Columbia River area. However, Asa Gray associated the fragment on the left with the name Bigelovia graveolens (Nutt.) A. Gray var. albicaulis (Nutt.) A. Gray (in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 644. 1873), or what is now variously known as Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall. ex Nutt.) Britton var. speciosus (Nutt.) H. M. Hall (in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 7: 169. 1919), C. nauseosus var. albicaulis (Nutt.) Rydb. (in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 385. 1900), C. nauseosus subsp. albicaulis (Nutt.) H. M. Hall & Clem. (in Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 326: 212. 1923), or Ericameria nauseosa var. speciosus (Nutt.) G. L. Nesom & Baird (in Phytologia 75: 87. 1993). The monographer of the genus, Loran C. Anderson of Florida State University, annotated the left-hand fragment subsp. graveolens. The supposed location of PH-LC 56 is from along the lower Snake River in Franklin or Walla Walla Co., Washington, but clearly the specimen(s) from this location are now missing.

Nuttall did not cite any of the Lewis and Clark material when he proposed Chrysocoma graveolens, and therefore, contrary to Cutright (1969: 405), none of the sheets cited above can be considered type material of the Nuttall name.
(The Lewis & Clark Herbarium Digital Imagery Study Set, ANSP, 2002)

On deposit at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
Credit line American Philosophical Society. Gift of Thomas Jefferson, 1805 - 1806.
Search Terms 19th century
botany
Clark
herbarium
Lewis
nineteenth century
plant
specimen